basalt rock encyclopedia

The Rock Cycle | National Geographic Society

Nov 21, 2019· Alternatively, rocks like basalt and obsidian have very small grains and a relatively fine texture. This happens because when magma erupts into lava, it cools more quickly than it would if it stayed inside the earth, giving crystals less time to form. Obsidian cools into volcanic glass so quickly when ejected that the grains are impossible to ...

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basalt | Definition, Properties, & Facts | Britannica

Basalt, extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock that is low in silica content, dark in color, and comparatively rich in iron and magnesium. Basalts may be broadly classified on a chemical and petrographic basis into two main groups: the tholeiitic and the alkali basalts. Learn more about basalt in this article.

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Basalt - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Basalt and its intrusive equivalents are by far the most abundant igneous rocks on the surface of the Earth and other rocky planets and satellites in the solar system. The prominent maria on the Moon ( Fig. 5 ) are composed of basaltic lava, and basalt makes up much of the surface of Mercury, Venus, Mars and Io (the innermost moon of Jupiter).

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Rock - definition of rock by The Free Dictionary

rock 1 (rŏk) n. 1. Relatively hard, naturally formed mineral or petrified matter; stone. 2. a. A relatively small piece or fragment of such material. b. A relatively large body of such material, as a cliff or peak. 3. A naturally formed aggregate of mineral matter constituting …

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Basalt - definition of basalt by The Free Dictionary

ba·salt (bə-sôlt′, bā′sôlt′) n. 1. A hard, dense, dark igneous rock composed chiefly of plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and olivine, and often having a glassy appearance. 2. A kind of hard unglazed pottery. [From New Latin basaltēn, a misreading (in manuscripts of Pliny) of Latin basanītēn, accusative of basanītēs, a word Pliny uses of ...

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basalt - Students | Britannica Kids | Homework Help

The word basalt is believed to have come from an ancient Ethiopian word, basal, meaning "a rock from which iron can be derived." Supposedly the first basalts were obtained in Ethiopia. Basalt is dark gray or black in color and is denser than most other volcanic rocks. It contains less silica and more iron and magnesia than the other common ...

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Seafloor Spreading | National Geographic Society

Jun 08, 2015· Basalt, the once-molten rock that makes up most new oceanic crust, is a fairly magnetic substance, and scientists began using magnetometers to measure the magnetism of the ocean floor in the 1950s. What they discovered was that the magnetism of the ocean floor around mid-ocean ridges was divided into matching "stripes" on either side of the ...

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Igneous rock - Convergent plate boundaries | Britannica

Igneous rock - Igneous rock - Convergent plate boundaries: Igneous rocks associated with convergent plate boundaries have the greatest diversity. In this case, granite batholiths underlie the great composite volcanoes and consist of rocks ranging from basalt through andesite to dacite and rhyolite. These boundaries are destructive and consume the subducting oceanic lithosphere formed at the ...

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Basalt | Article about basalt by The Free Dictionary

Basalt is an igneous rock, i.e., one that has congealed from a molten state. Basaltic magma is derived by partial melting of the peridotite that is found in the asthenosphere asthenosphere, region in the upper mantle of the earth''s interior, characterized by low-density, semiplastic (or partially molten) rock material chemically similar to the ...

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Tholeiitic_basalt - chemeurope

Tholeiitic basalt is an igneous rock, a type of basalt.Like all basalt, the rock type is dominated by clinopyroxene plus plagioclase, with minor iron-titanium oxides. [1] Orthopyroxene or pigeonite may also be present in tholeiitic basalt, and olivine, if present, may be rimmed by either of these calcium-poor pyroxenes. Tridymite or quartz may be present in the fine-grained groundmass of ...

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Basalt rock - ScienceDaily

Mar 02, 2021· Basalt is a common gray to black volcanic rock. It is usually fine-grained due to rapid cooling of lava on the Earth''s surface. It may be porphyritic containing larger crystals in a fine matrix ...

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Basalt - Wikipedia

Basalt (US: / b ə ˈ s ɔː l t, ˈ b eɪ s ɒ l t /, UK: / ˈ b æ s ɔː l t, ˈ b æ s əl t /) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron (mafic lava) exposed at or very near the surface of a rocky planet or a moon. More than 90% of all volcanic rock on Earth is basalt. Rapid-cooling, fine-grained basalt is ...

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Liquid basalt | Article about Liquid basalt by The Free ...

Basalt is an igneous rock, i.e., one that has congealed from a molten state. Basaltic magma is derived by partial melting of the peridotite that is found in the asthenosphere asthenosphere, region in the upper mantle of the earth''s interior, characterized by low-density, semiplastic (or partially molten) rock material chemically similar to the ...

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The Rock Cycle | National Geographic Society

Nov 21, 2019· The rock cycle is a series of processes that create and transform the types of rocks in Earth''s crust. ... Alternatively, rocks like basalt and obsidian have very small grains and a relatively fine texture. This happens because when magma erupts into lava, it cools more quickly than it would if it stayed inside the earth, giving crystals less ...

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Igneous Rocks | National Geographic Society

Oct 10, 2019· Igneous rocks form when magma (molten rock) cools and crystallizes, either at volcanoes on the surface of the Earth or while the melted rock is still inside the crust. All magma develops underground, in the lower crust or upper mantle, because of the intense heat there.. Igneous rocks can have many different compositions, depending on the magma they cool from.

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List of rock types - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

List. Sorted by name; initial letter means Igneous, Sedimentary or Metamorphic rocks.. A I Andesite – an intermediate volcanic rock M Anthracite – a form of hard coal B S Banded iron formation – a fine grained chemical sedimentary rock composed of iron oxide minerals S Bauxite – the main ore of aluminium is mostly aluminium oxide. I Basalt – grey/black fine-grained rock from lava ...

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What is basalt rock?

Basalt is a dark-colored, fine-grained, igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase and pyroxene minerals. It most commonly forms as an extrusive rock, such as a lava flow, but can also form in small intrusive bodies, such as an igneous dike or a thin sill.

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Basalt - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Basalt is a common grey to black rock is pushed out by volcanos.The lava is rich in magnesium and iron has olivine and pyroxene minerals which make it dark in colour. Basalt is usually fine-grained because the lava cools rapidly on the Earth''s surface. Flood basalts are commonplace, formed by lava pouring out and solidifying.. On Earth, most basalt …

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* Basalt (Jewelry) - Definition - Online Encyclopedia

Basalt, natural Basalt is a common mafic extrusive volcanic rock is usually gray to black and fine-grained due to rapid cooling of lava at the surface of a planet. It may be porphyritic containing larger crystals in a fine matrix, or vesicular, or frothy scoria.Unweathered basalt is black or gray.. BLACK BASALTE COLLECTOR''S NOTES Black basalte wares are extremely durable, and pieces from ...

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Basalt – Wikipedia

Basalt ist ein basisches (SiO 2-armes) Ergussgestein.Es besteht vor allem aus einer Mischung von Calcium-Eisen-Magnesium-Silikaten und calcium- und natriumreichem Feldspat sowie meist auch Olivin.Basalt ist das vulkanische Äquivalent zum Gabbro (), der die gleiche chemische Zusammensetzung hat.. Die um 1800 geführte Auseinandersetzung über die Herkunft der Basalte, …

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Basalt - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Basalt is an easily datable rock and thus is a handy tool when available. Basalt flows emanating from the Uinkaret field between the Hurricane and Toroweep faults spilled into the Grand Canyon as shown in Figure 14.19. These basalts have been used to determine Colorado River incision rates.

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Basalt, Colorado - Wikipedia

The town was named for the basaltic rock formation on Basalt Mountain, and began as a railroad town. The town was incorporated in 1901. Geography. Basalt is located along State Highway 82, and at the confluence of the Fryingpan and Roaring Fork rivers.

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Basalt Fiber Properties, Advantages and Disadvantages

Basalt rock characteristics vary from the source of lava, cooling rate, and historical exposure to the elements. High quality fibers are made from basalt deposits with uniform chemical makeup. The production of basalt and glass fibers are similar. Crushed basalt rock is the only raw material required for manufacturing the fiber.

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